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Cleaner Production 
CP in China

Papers Delivered at International Conference on Cleaner Production
Beijing, China -- September 2001 -- Paper 19 of 30

DISSERTATION ABOUT THE CAPABILITY BUILDING OF THE GOVERNMENT ENFORCING CLEANER PRODUCTION IN A REGION

Li Qiang, Director, 
The Benxi Agenda 21 Administrative Center
August 19, 2001

20th century is an age in which international industrial revolution was keeping deeply underway and productivity was creating swift and violently. It is the period in which global environment was polluted seriously. Especially after going into1980s while developing economy fast a series of natural sources was destroyed, natural environment worsened, and climate changed etc.. It has grievously threatened human’s survival and development and made humanity review human being’s producing activities. After the conference of international environment and development in 1992 many countries begun to throw away the producing patterns that consume natural sources highly, lose and waste greatly, pollute environment seriously and make low economic benefit, and use the way of Cleaner Production saving energy, reducing consumption, decreasing pollution, and increasing benefit step by step.

Benxi is a weight industrial city, taking iron and steel, coal, building material and chemical industry as main industry. Benxi has made important contribution for State’s developing economy. Since long before the mode developing economy extensively in Benxi has cause deformity of economical structure, backward in industrial equipment, low economic benefit and serious environmental pollution so that a sustainable city was met by a critical challenges. From 1996 Benxi municipality and UNDP cooperatively implemented a project: Improve Capability Building of Government Controlling Polluting Air of Benxi, Utilizing CP Extensively. The municipality carried out CP experiments in enterprises so that it has made important fruit being the focus of the State and world, and begun to go on the a sound path coordinated growth of economy, society, souses and environment.

Improvement from practice CP is a scientific systematic engineering. Before no shaping a market mechanism carrying out CP on a large scale and in all region should be built on the basis of macro regulating and controlling by government, leading of policy and systematic regulating to work. In success or failing carrying out CP in a region the government plays a main part and raising government’s capability building is a decisive factor.

A. Achievement Carrying out CP in Benxi 

a. Launch Training and Propagating Deeply and Extensively

We have propagated the idea and thought of CP deeply and extensively to managers at different levels who have been directed against.

  • Training for top decision-makers from municipality
  • Training for managing departments of authority
  • Training for legal persons, senior managers, engineering technical persons from enterprises
  • Training for auditors
  • Propagating and educating to mass organization and the public

b. More and More Enterprises Demand to Implement CP on Its Own Initiative

Since 1996 there have been 41 companies in Benxi which have implemented CP successively and cover 68% of the state’s large and medium enterprises. 15 companies of them have passed through audit and acceptance by the CP Centre of China(CPCC), and 4 from 15 companies have been elected demonstrative enterprises by CPCC. The others have passed through acceptance by Benxi municipality. Now there are 12 companies that began to implement CP from June of this year. Benxi has planned that all enterprises which has ability to do it should implement CP in coming three years.

c. Achieve Gratifying Environmental and Economic Benefit

50 projects of median and high fee were screened out in 41 companies’ CP implementing, 29 projects of which have been implemented. 422 projects of low fee and no fee were screened out, 384 projects of which have been implemented. RMB 75.09 million yuan of the total fund were input, 290 million yuan of economic benefit has been achieved, and the rate of input and output is 1:3.9. We have obtained better environmental benefit on the basis of gaining better economic benefit. With auditing discharging COD decreases 5759 tons, the decreasing rate is 33.3%, discharging waste water reduces 2175 tons, waste gas decreases 2800 million standard m³, and solid waste reduces 26 thousand tons. The reducing total quantity discharging pollution covers 10% of it auditing companies’ discharge.

B. Macro Controlling and Regulating and Politics Leading Are Internal Requirement Implementing CP

CP makes an enterprise realize both benefit of economy and environment with the means of reduction, the least and harmlessness of waste. CP has scientifically solved the polluting problem from a fountainhead. It requires saving energy, reducing consumption, decreasing pollution and increasing benefit to realize regulating developing economy, society and environment.

a. The Play of Authorities Implementing CP

CP is a kind of scientific and comprehensive systematic engineering and needs macro controlling and policy leading of authorities’ behaviors.

The macro controlling: It means to make relative departments of authorities raise level understanding and mastering the idea of CP, and one of municipal sections is charge of regulating every relative department to support and join in the enterprises’ CP on the basis of cooperation and dividing the work of a managing department of the various walks of life to offer a comprehensive target and indexes for regulation and development of economy, society, sources and environment.

Policy leading: It means to research and use for reference of connected policy, laws, and regulations at home and abroad to draw out ones according with practice of its region to implement management and encourage companies to implement CP by operation of law.

b. Capability Building of Government is Internal Requirement Implementing Clean Production

CP needs to utilize comprehensively the measures of economy, administration and law to push forward in enterprises, so it claims authorities to have decision-making and managing persons with corresponding quality, managing supporting administrative setup and system, form a technological managing system and make them have a multiple ability implementing CP and regulating play, therefore strengthening authorities’ capability building is internal requirement implementing CP.

c. Significance and Onerousness of Authorities’ Capability Building

As local authorities, capability building implementing CP involves decision-making, management, information and statistics etc.. The basic target of capability building is to enhance level of policy, select developing patterns, and capability estimating and pushing forward implementing CP. The authorities strengthen ability building of composite decision-making, overall planning, policy leading, law guarantee, examine and supervision, and giving scope to play of managing sections at every levels, so that it may form the whole join forces in all society. Ii is thus clear that the work improving authorities’ capability building is extremely important and onerous and has a bearing on success or failing implementing CP.

In a nutshell authorities’ capability building is a significant link implementing CP.

C. Main Tasks of Authorities’ Capability Building

a. Change the Sense and Raise Cognition

The decision-makers and managing sections of authorities should change a traditional pattern increasing economy and controlling pollution, make carrying out CP as significant content establishing a synthetic decision-making mechanism of environment and development, and implement sustainable regulating developing strategy of economy, society, source and environment.

For this purpose, we organized centrally training for the decision-makers and managing sections. We invited famous senior experts and scholars at home and abroad to have special addresses, international and domestic seminars, and organized authorities’ officers to visit and study to America, Canada, European countries and domestic cities concerned. Senior officers of municipality have been many times invited to attend international conferences about sustainable development and CP. The authorities’ decision-makers and leaders of managing sections enlarge their view, heighten understanding and change thinking way and idea completely.

b. Establish and Improve Managing Setup

Benxi municipality established Benxi Agenda 21 Leading Team (BALT) in1994, under which setting up an office and Benxi Agenda 21 Administrative Centre (BAAC). The mayor took command of the leading team in person, 14 sections of municipality joined in managing and regulating CP. Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB) of Bnexi and Benxi Agenda 21 Administrative Centre took charge of implementing concretely.

Setups Chart of CP Managing

 

c. Formulate System of Policy and Regulations Beneficial to CP

The system of policy and regulations implementing CP is in the light of the environmental law of our state and interrelated economic law and regulations, in the aim of sustainable strategy, on the basis of principle coordinating developing economy and environment and replying mainly on prevention and synthetically preventive treatment, planning compositely developing tendency of CP combining regional practice, working out policy and regulations of beneficial to CP, so that it forms unified entirety of contacting each other, regulating uniformity with a variety of present environmental and economic policy and regulations. This is composed of three parts:

Synthetic policy and regulations---Rules implementing CP in region

  • Managing way of rules of target and duty
  • Estimation of environmental influence and rules of 3 completed projects in the same time

Environmental rules---Managing way of examination and approval and environmental report of an enterprise

  • Additional regulation charging for pollution discharging
  • Regulation auditing CP
  • Environmental standard
  • Managing way fund of CP
  • Managing way of a license discharging pollution
  • Rules of environmental sign

Economic rules---Charging compensation of ecotope

  • Preferential polity of financial tax and loan
  • System of reward by CP

d. Establish New Strategic Idea Adjusting Industrial Construction

  • Intensive development instead of extensive one in traditional industry
  • Make economic benefit as center to adjust industrial construction making the construction reasonable
  • Import talent, material resources, financial resources to develop new-high technological industry
  • Replace the older generations of material and products making them harmless or low
  • Develop green industry that produce green products

e. Improve Scientific Bearing Ability for CP

Science and technology are significant foundation of human living. CP is a great behavior to utilize advanced technology and scientific management to change background condition for enterprises. CP cannot be carried out without advanced science and technology as depending. So science and technology are pushing power, and meanwhile one of significant targets of authorities’ capability building.

Each link of the eight ones implementing CP needs supporting with science and technology. The process implementing CP important and great scientific and technological problems can be born and a batch of projects can be put forward. For this reason it needs to develop and research a bitch of fruits of new-high technology and import and spread domestic and foreign advanced technology and equipments. All above need concerned sections of authorities to join, organize and regulate cooperation and connecton between enterprises and technologic sections, and improve managing ability of these sections implementing CP in practice.

f. Build a Supporting System Managing Information of CP

It needs to build a supporting system inquiring information accurately, timely and continuously for authorities implementing CP and handle information, data and material of CP to an organic entirety (a material store) by a computer to service for decision-making and management. This system can memorize large foundation material, talk to a worker friendly, output sensitively and directly, supply decision-making foundation of macro economy for senior managers, and provide detail technologic material for special workers.

The system can support several parts supporting service as follows,

  • Various of stores of data and material
  • Estimate reliability of a various of data
  • Provide the data and material of CP decision-making for leaders
  • Establish a report system of material and date of polluting source
  • Build a procedure analyzing tendency to track condition discharging pollution and progressing of environmental investment of enterprises implementing CP
  • The procedure servicing annual report forms
  • Display and print forms, pictures and figures above

D. Cruces of Capability Building for Authorities Implementing CP Is Improving Operating Mechanism

Behavior of employees’ own free will is main condition implementing CP. The importance of capability building of authorities is to establish and improve an effective operating mechanism stimulating the enthusiasm of every employee and enterprise to join in CP from own initiatives, and to carry out CP through planning target, synthetically managing, society joining, market operating and regulating benefit, and so on. The most importance is to establish and improve a systematic operating mechanism.

a. A Mechanism Planning Targets

The targets of CP established by the authorities at a level should be the synthetically system of targets, and reflect concretely economy, environment and society, including an increasing target of economic benefit (GDP, all labor productivity and tax rate of $100 etc.), the target utilizing natural source (the index saving material and substitution, and the index saving energy and substitution), the target of environmental benefit (the index reaching standard controlling pollution of water, air, noise and solid waste, the index realizing environmental benefit), the target of social benefit (the index of the rate of employment, unemployment, pension, medical health, and social insurance, etc.).

b. Synthetically Managing Mechanism

Implementing CP needs to bring into play of synthetically management with measures of economy, administration and law, etc., and the core of it is to make CP reflect norm actions of authorities at all levels and connected sections. It needs to shape an action and value to promote developing economy, using source reasonably and running environmental pollution, and a managing mechanism connecting stimulating and binding.

The economic measure: It is mainly to reduce cost and increase benefit, and lead a litigant to adopt CP positively by saving material to realize the aim saving energy, reducing consume, decreasing pollution and increasing benefit, and establish rules of reward and punishment to push forward developing CP continually relying on economic measure and leading all employees to join.

The measure of law: To realize developing CP long and steadily in order must build a strong law guarantee. It includes economy, environment, source, society and etc.. These laws enforce through joining of the sections of establishing the law, enforcing the law, judicature, supervise to guard lawful benefits of a legal person and all employees, punish criminals and ensure implementing CP successfully by settling illegality and dispute.

The administrative measure: The administrative mainstay of CP is authorities and concerned sections. CP must be placed into daily management of governments at all levels, establish effective synthetically managing rules, enhance decision-making level and ability mobilizing and enforcing, build a system enforcing, managing, supervising, estimating and accepting CP, to make the process enforcing the strategy of CP as an organic entirety operating much efficiently

c. The Mechanism of Society Joining

CP is a kind of complicated systematic engineering. The mainstay is enterprises’ actively participation and authorities and relative sections’ participation and cooperation is the guarantee enforcing CP. By participation we mean accepting and propagating idea of CP, establishing new sense and new idea of CP to normalize own action as the requirement of CP. The government makes a target, progress, plan and particular action measure enforcing CP in the own region. The concerned sections of authorities should ensure by law to implement CP smoothly. Enterprises are mainstay in enforcing CP. A leader leads all employees of his company to enforce CP according to plan, organization in the light of requirement of local government. The participating degree of the three will decide the progress realizing the target of CP.

d. The Mechanism of a Market Operating

Any new emerging things undergo a process from shallow to deep, from unknown to known, from unconsciousness to consciousness. CP is this so it does like this.

At the beginning since understanding is shallow, technique and skill operating are inexperienced carrying CP should depend on action of authorities. Along with forming the mechanism enforcing CP and step by step to consciousness the enterprises may try benefit from it. The great benefit bearing from CP can cause enterprises implementing CP from doing under the demand of authorities to doing it by themselves. Enterprises can bear saving energy, reducing consume, decreasing pollution, increasing benefit, fruits, talent and benefit from CP.

The relative sections of authorities have forged strong special technical ranks managing and joining in CP, forming a special institution and managers (e.g. Benxi has established the Centre of CP, fostered experienced ranks of auditors). It has made the CP activities of technology consulting, training, auditing and servicing go into a technical market shaping a mechanism and operating well.

Summarizing the above, CP is a great transformation of a pattern of traditional production, has thoroughly changed the economy of material going to only one direction, source-->product-->discharging pollution, initiates an model economic developing building on a basis of a kind of material continually cycling and reusing. It has basically resolved the conflict between environment and development from a long time past, and is uniformity with the principle cycling economy proposed recently in the international society. CP needs the measures of economy, administration and law to carry out in enterprises and only local governments have this kind of functions.

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