Jinan is the capital of Shandong Province, on China's east coast. It is located in the center of the province, and it is the province's political, economic and cultural center. Jinan has jurisdiction over five districts (Lixia, Licheng, Huaiyin, Tianqiao and Shizhong), four counties (Changqing, Pingyin, Shanghe and Jiyang) and Zhangqiu City, with a population of about 5.5 million, including 2.5 million urban residents. The Yellow River (Huang He), which has also been identified for special environmental attention, is just to the north of Jinan. The main industries in Jinan include metallurgy, machinery, electronics, chemicals, foodstuffs, building materials, textiles and pharmaceuticals.
In recent years, there has been great economic growth in Shandong province, particularly in Jinan, where the Xiaoqing River flows into the Yellow River. However, this growth has resulted in coal emission pollution (sulfur dioxide) and acid rain from industrial and residential boilers. Severe air pollution from this source is aggravated by Jinan's frequent (200 days per year) temperature inversions. Industry is also a major water pollution source.
In 2000, Jinan
initiated its Blue Sky program. Efforts to burn
coal more efficiently and the reduction of vehicle emissions are the main focus of air pollution
control. Strategies to control wastewater have also been initiated. Some
of the most polluting factories have been closed, and in 2000, the use of
phosphate-containing detergents was banned in the province of Shandong.